BASIC NOTES TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

BASIC NOTES TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

Here, we are trying to provide you some information about basic notes for business studies, business studies tutorials, CBSE business studies notes for class 11 class 12 BBA MBA BCA MCA B.com M.com BMS MMS PGDM Entrepreneur other further management class.

Today, we are going to provide basic techniques of scientific management notes CBSE study material for commerce students to become great and better managers in any organization. Previously, we studied BASIC NOTES NATURE SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES FEATURES NATURE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES SIGNIFICANCE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES TAYLOR SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT for BUSNIESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT, BASIC NOTES TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

BASIC NOTES TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
BASIC NOTES TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

Let us discuss techniques as specified by him. They are based on the various experiments he conducted during his career. 

Business Studies Notes Tutorials Functional Formanship

In the factory system, the foreman represents the managerial figure with whom the workers while face-to-face contact daily. In the first chapter of the book, you have seen n is the lowest ranking manager and the highest-ranking workers. He is the shaft around whom rotates the whole production planning, implementation, and control. Taylor focused on upgrading the performance of this task in the factory set-up. He identified the list of qualities of a good foreman and supervisor and found that no one promoted him to suggest functional foremanship through eight persons. 

Taylor promoted the separation of planning and execution functions. This theory was extended to the lowest level of the workshop stage. It is known as functional foremanship. Under the factory manager, there was planning in charge and production in charge. Under planning in charge four personnel namely instruction card clerk, route clerk, time and clerk, and a disciplinarian worked. This four personnel would draft instructions for the workers, specify the route of production, prepare time and cost sheet and ensure discipline respectively.

Under production in-charge personnel who would work were rush boss, group boss, improvement boss, and monitor. These respectively were responsible for timely accurate completion of job, keep machines and tools, etc., ready for operation by workers, ensure the proper working condition of machines and tools and check the quality of work.

Functional foremanship is an increase of the principle of division of work and specialization to the workshop stage. Each worker will have to take orders from these eight foramina in the related method or functions of production. Foremen should have facts, education, perception, strength, judgment, appropriate knowledge, manual ability, energy, honesty, and good health. Since all these characters could not be found in a particular person so Taylor introduced eight specialists. Each specialist is to be selected to work according to her/his character.

Basic Notes About Business Studies Standardization and Simplification of Work

Taylor was an ardent supporter of standardization. According to him, the scientific method should be used to analyze methods of production prevalent under the rule of the thumb. The best practices can be kept further refined to develop a standard that should be followed throughout the organization. This can be done through work-study techniques which include time study, motion study, fatigue study, and method study, and which are discussed further in this topic. It may be pointed out that even the contemporary techniques of business processes including re-engineering, kaizen (continuous improvement), and benchmarking are aimed at standardizing the work.

Standardization introduces the method of setting rules for every business action; it can be standardization of process, raw material, time, product, machinery, methods, or working situations. These models are the benchmarks, which must be fixed during production. The objectives of standardization are:

  • To conquer a given industry or product to fixed models, sizes, and features.
  • To establish interchangeability of manufactured parts and products.
  • To establish standards of perfection and variety in materials.
  • To establish standards of review of peoples and devices.

Simplification aims at reducing extreme varieties, sizes, and dimensions while standardization implies designing new varieties rather than the actual things. Simplification aims at eliminating unnecessary diversity of products. It results in savings of the cost of labor, machines, and tools. It means reduced lists, fuller utilization of tools, and growing turnover.

Most large companies like Nokia, Toyota, and Microsoft, etc., successfully implemented standardization and simplification. This is obvious from their huge share in their businesses.

Here, we are trying to provide you some information about basic notes for business studies, business studies tutorials, CBSE business studies notes for class 11 class 12 BBA MBA BCA MCA B.com M.com BMS MMS PGDM Entrepreneur other further management class.

Today, we are going to provide basic techniques of scientific management notes CBSE study material for commerce students to become great and better managers in any organization. Previously, we studied BASIC NOTES NATURE SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES FEATURES NATURE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES SIGNIFICANCE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES TAYLOR SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT for BUSNIESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT, BASIC NOTES TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

Method Study

The objective of the method study is to find out one best way of doing the job. There are various methods of doing the job. To identify the best approach there are various parameters. Right from procurement of raw materials till the last commodity is carried to the customer all activity is the portion of the method study. Taylor devised the concept of the assembly line by using a method study. Ford Motor Company used this concept very successfully. Even now auto companies are using it. The objective of the whole exercise is to minimize the cost of production and maximize the quality and satisfaction of the customer. For this purpose, many techniques like process charts and operations research, etc are used. For designing a car, the assembly line production would entail deciding the sequence of operations, a place for men, machines, and raw materials lavishing new varieties instead of the, etc. All this is part of the method study.

Motion Study

Motion study refers to the study of actions like lifting, placing things, meeting and exchanging judgments, etc., which are offered while doing a regular job. Unnecessary movements have been sought to be eliminated so that it takes less time to complete the job efficiently. For example, Taylor and his assistant Frank Gailberth were able to overcome motions in brick layering from 18 to just 5. Taylor demonstrated that productivity increased about four times by this process.
On close review of body motions, in the case, it is possible to find out:

  • Productive motions.
  • Motions that are incidental (e.g., going to stores).
  • Unproductive motions.

Taylor used stopwatches and various symbols and colors to identify different emotions. Through motion studies, Taylor was able to create proper material and tools to instruct workers on their purpose. The result in increased results achieved by him was truly remarkable.

Time Study

It defines the official time taken to achieve a well-defined job. Time measuring devices are used for each element of a task. The official time is set for the whole of the responsibility by taking various readings. The method of time study will depend upon the capacity and frequency of the period time of the service and time range charges. The purpose of the time study is to define the number of workers to be applied:

  • Frame suitable
  • Incentive schemes
  • Determine labor costs

Fatigue Study 

A character is connected to feel tired physically and mentally if she/he does not hold while working. The break pauses will assist one to regain strength and operate again with the same potential. This will occur in increased productivity. Fatigue study seeks to define the quantity and number of break pauses in finishing a responsibility. 

There can be several reasons for fatigue like continued working hours, doing inappropriate work, having un-cordial similarities with the boss or bad working situations, etc. Such barriers to good performance should be removed. 

DIFFERENTIAL PIECE WAGE SYSTEM 

Taylor was a powerful advocate of the percentage salary policy. He was required to differentiate between effective and ineffective workers. The standard time and other parameters should be defined based on the work-study explained before. The workers can then be classified as efficient or inefficient based on these standards. He wanted to reward efficient workers. So he started the different allowances of wage payment for those who achieved the above model and for those who finished below model.

According to Taylor, the variety of Rs 190 should be sufficient for the ineffective worker to be caused to work properly. From his own experience, Taylor provides the case of a worker named Schmidt he was capable to earn 60% more salaries from $1.15 to $1.85 on rising pig iron loading from 12.5 tons per labor per day to 47 tons per labor per day in boxcars at Bethlehem Steelworks by following scientific management techniques.

It is essential to have a relook at the techniques of scientific management including a combined whole of Taylor’s direction of power. Examine for power needs to be determined the method must lead to the decision of a fair day’s work. There must be a bonus system that contrasts those who can achieve/better the regular day’s work. The differential system must be based on the assumption that performance is the outcome of the common efforts of the managers and the workers. Therefore, first arguing over the share in the resultant surplus workers and managers should work in unity for maximizing the product rather than restricting it. The capacity and material of Taylor’s opinions lie not in the confused classification of principles and techniques of scientific management, but in the variance of the mindset, which he referred to as mental revolution. Mental revolution involves a variation in the position of workers and management towards one another from struggle to service. Both should realize that they require one another. Both should aim to increase the size of the surplus. This would eliminate the need for any agitation. Management should share a part of the surplus with workers. Workers should also share their strengths so that the corporation makes interests. This character will be suitable for both of them and also for the business. In the long run, only worker’s well-being will techniques of scientific management ensure the prosperity of the business. 

Now, having studied the elements, principles, and techniques of scientific management we can consider the search for one best method and the practical applications of the same at the time of F.W. Taylor and in the present. We can similarly analyze the modern situation of scientific management. Now, several different techniques have been developed as a series for scientific management. Operations research was developed in the second World as the result of the joint efforts of the War to optimize the deployment of war material. Similarly, the assembly line was also discovered by F.W. Taylor, which was used very successfully by Ford motor company for manufacturing ‘Model T’ cars for the masses. This concept is much used now. The most advanced growth in scientific management is LEAN MANUFACTURING. Nowadays robotics and computers are being used in production and other business activities. This is part of the scientific management of these activities. It has increased productivity levels. The methods of operation research have also been improved and are being utilized as a decision of scientific management. They give meanings to some terms used in modern manufacturing. 

After reading this topic techniques of scientific management we are providing the next topic which is FAYOL’S PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

Here, we are trying to provide you some information about basic notes for business studies, business studies tutorials, CBSE business studies notes for class 11 class 12 BBA MBA BCA MCA B.com M.com BMS MMS PGDM Entrepreneur other further management class.

Today, we are going to provide basic techniques of scientific management notes CBSE study material for commerce students to become great and better managers in any organization. Previously, we studied BASIC NOTES NATURE SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES CHARACTERISTICS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES OBJECTIVES OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES FEATURES NATURE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES SIGNIFICANCE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT BUSINESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES TAYLOR SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT for BUSNIESS STUDIESBASIC NOTES PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT, BASIC NOTES TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

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